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Cervical cancer is the primary Reason for cancer-related deaths in developing Nations, Gainesville FL Animal Removal

In India, cervical cancer is the most frequent woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. About 122,844 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually (estimations for 2012). It mostly affects middle-aged women (between 40 and 55 years), especially those from the lower economic status who fail to perform regular health check-ups. The early stages of cervical cancer are curable, after phases may present with abnormal vaginal bleeding, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, lower back pain, bleeding and pain during urination or pain during sex. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now a well-established cause of cervical cancer. Several cofactors associated with HPV persistence are smoking, promiscuity, long-term oral contraceptive use and other sexually transmitted infections like HIV. At least 50% of sexually active women and men get HPV at some time in their lives that generally resolves spontaneously; however, only 3-10% of women develop persistent infections, and are at high risk of developing cervical cancer.

Lifestyle Changes

Since early detection predicts better prognosis, one of the very best methods of preventing and controlling cervical cancer is routine screening by Pap Smear, VIA and early identification.


Screening by cervical cytology Pap smear (scrapings in the cervix) has result in marked decrease in cervical cancer incidence. The test is not considered for women below the age of 25 years and over age 65 years. A 3-yearly examination is recommended for girls between the ages of 25 -49 years while for the age group between 50-64 years a Pap smear once in every 5 years is recommended.

HPV Vaccines

Prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option. Among the many strains of HPV infection two strains: HPV 16 and 18, account for at least 70 percent of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV vaccines that prevent against HPV 16 and 18 infection are now available and have the potential to reduce the incidence of cervical and other anogenital cancers.

The defense is seen only when the vaccine is given before infection with HPV, the vaccine should be provided prior to sexual debut. The vaccine should rather be introduced to parents as a cervical cancer preventing vaccine and not as a vaccine against a sexually transmitted infection. The HPV vaccination is therefore of public health importance.

Two vaccines licensed worldwide can be found in India; a quadrivalent vaccine (GardasilTM marketed by Merck) and a bivalent vaccine (CervarixTM promoted by GlaxoSmithKline). These vaccines don’t protect against the serotype with which infection has already happened before vaccination. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines available are prophylactic, not therapeutic.

Prevention is better than cure. This expression does not seem to hold good for Indians as far as health care is concerned with only around 10 per cent of adults opting for vaccines

Treatment of established cervical cancer

Cancer in very early phases could be removed surgically. In later stages, radiation and chemotherapy maybe employed alone or after surgery

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